Donald Trump’s removal from primary ballots in Colorado and Maine marked a win for two activist groups funded largely by liberal donors that have worked methodically to transform a scholarly thought experiment about the 14th Amendment into a real-world legal strategy.

Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW), and another group, Free Speech for People, have been catalysts for the yearslong campaign to boot Trump from the presidential ballot using a provision that bans those who "engaged in insurrection” from holding office.

They raised millions of dollars from individual donors and liberal philanthropists, including George Soros and Craig Newmark, helping power an effort that will decisively shape how the 2024 election unfolds and potentially prompt a constitutional crisis.