The Pentagon’s No. 2 official said Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is teaching the U.S. valuable lessons for a potential conflict with China, from the need to build a steady pipeline to produce ammunition to innovation in space.

"There are many advantages we’ve gained for a potential Pacific challenge from the Ukraine conflict,” Deputy Secretary of Defense Kathleen Hicks said in an interview. "We’re learning now to grow our industrial base and to study that industrial base, which has been for the last 60 years in a bit of a feast and famine cycle.”

Hicks was addressing one of the biggest challenges the U.S. has faced as it’s looked to keep Ukraine supplied with weapons and ammunition to repel Russia’s invasion: many defense contractors have been wary of ramping up production of munitions if the U.S. decides to stop buying them in a year or two.