India may have already surpassed China as the world’s most-populous nation in a milestone that adds urgency for Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to create more jobs and ensure the country sustains its world-beating growth.

The South Asian nation’s population stood at 1.417 billion as of end 2022, according to estimates from the World Population Review, an independent organization focused on census and demographics.

That’s a little over 5 million more than the 1.412 billion reported by China Tuesday when authorities there announced the first decline since the 1960s.