Japan’s three biggest carmakers rank the lowest among global auto companies when it comes to decarbonization efforts, according to a study by Greenpeace, as the climate crisis intensifies the need to shift to zero-emission vehicles.

While the European Union has taken steps to ban the sale of new combustion-engine vehicles by 2035, and China has boosted its share of battery-powered electric cars, the largest automakers in Japan — Toyota, Nissan and Honda — have been slower to respond, the environmental advocacy group said in a statement Thursday.

Toyota scored the lowest among top 10 producers for a second year running. Zero-emission vehicles made up just 0.18% of its total sales last year versus General Motors at 8.18%.