As Japan plows ahead with its COVID-19 inoculation program, more vaccine-hesitant employees are voicing concerns over workplace discrimination and maltreatment stemming from their refusal to get jabs.

The issue of what is dubbed “vaccination harassment” has underscored the dearth of measures companies in Japan can take to require that employees get vaccinated or punish them for their decision to skip the shot.

The situation is markedly different in the U.S., where the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has said companies can legally mandate their employees and new hires to be vaccinated against COVID-19. The only possible exceptions are cases involving disabilities and “sincerely held” religious beliefs.