Compared to the Trump administration’s sweeping revocation of visas for “high-risk” students and researchers with suspected ties to the Chinese military, Japan’s response to campus spying has largely been muted.

But even “spy heaven,” as the nation is often dubbed due to its lack of a comprehensive anti-espionage law, can no longer remain complacent.

Japan is gradually waking up to security threats posed by industrial spies masquerading as international students, launching a nascent fight against China’s perceived infiltration of top-notch scientific universities and theft of intellectual property.