When British teenager Kaitlyn McGoldrick heard domestic violence was increasing under lockdown, she posted a video on social media showing victims how to make a silent emergency call to police without their attackers finding out.

"I just wanted to get the message out there that there are still places you can go," said McGoldrick, 14, a volunteer police cadet whose post has had more than 50,000 views on the TikTok video-sharing platform.

As the coronavirus measures trap victims under the same roof as abusers, the United Nations has called domestic violence a "shadow pandemic," and the issue has led to a flurry of online campaigns by charities, celebrities and ordinary social media users.