Efforts are underway by local governments across the nation to support non-Japanese in times of natural disaster as the number of foreign nationals living in Japan continues to grow.

As part of the shift, local authorities are preparing emergency manuals and guidelines that stipulate specific steps, including how to prepare for an earthquake.

Kyodo News surveyed 50 municipalities, including most of Tokyo's 23 wards, where a large number of foreign residents live, and three other major cities in Shizuoka, Niigata and Kumamoto.