Shutdowns aren't cheap. This year's closure, which ended Thursday, has probably cost the government and the economy billions of dollars, according to economists and policy analysts.

Below are some estimates of the financial effects of the 16-day closure, which forced hundreds of thousands of government employees and contractors off the job.

The lapse in appropriations ended last week with a deal to fund the government through mid-January and allow more federal borrowing. But that agreement provides only temporary relief from the financial uncertainty, because lawmakers could end up in another stalemate when the resolution expires.