JAPANESE MANDALAS: Representations of Sacred Geography by Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1999. Pp. 228; color plates 22; b/w illustrations, 104. $52.00 (cloth); $29.95 (paper).

The mandala has been defined (by Toga no Shozui) as “a symmetrically arranged symbolic diagram used in Hinduism and esoteric Buddhism to express fundamental religious doctrine for the purposes of ritual and medication.”

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