In December 2022, the Japanese government stated in its National Security Strategy and National Defense Strategy its decision to possess counterstrike capabilities, saying it would be “a key to deterring invasion against Japan.”

The National Defense Strategy says Japan will fundamentally reinforce the current multidomain defense force and “will possess a capability that makes the opponent realize that the goal of invasion of Japan is not achievable by military means, and that the damage the opponent will incur makes the invasion not worth the cost.”

Under the strategy, deterrence by denial — denying adversaries’ prospects of operational success — and deterrence by punishment — U.S. extended deterrence with nuclear deterrence at its core — are the essence of Japan’s deterrence capabilities.