Discussions on economic security began in earnest in Japan and the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the momentum was not so high in Europe.

This was because the issue of economic security has been taken up by Washington and Tokyo mainly as a way to respond to Beijing’s economic coercion and concerns over excessive dependence on China.

Countries that regard China as a national security threat or a rival in terms of strategic competition were forced to think of measures to fight coercive economic statecraft.