In 2023, the Chinese economy showed signs of faltering as various issues came home to roost.

This all flew in the face of what was meant to be an upbeat post-pandemic period for the world’s No. 2 economy.

There was an expectation that China, which implemented some of the harshest pandemic controls in the world, would swing into growth mode, but instead its economy has been roiled by a spiraling real estate crisis, falling consumer confidence, deflation, soaring youth unemployment and the disappearance of foreign investment.