Chronology: Egypt since its revolution five years ago


Key developments in Egypt since the January 2011 uprising that toppled the 30-year rule of President Hosni Mubarak:

The revolution

On Jan. 25, 2011, massive anti-Mubarak protests erupt after a revolt topples Tunisia’s ruler in what becomes known as the Arab Spring.

On Feb. 1, more than a million demonstrators take to the streets, with a great flood of people congregating in Cairo’s Tahrir Square.

On Feb. 11, Mubarak resigns and hands power to the army, which suspends the constitution and dissolves parliament.

About 850 people die during 18 days of revolt.

Islamist victory

From November 2011 to January 2012, Egypt holds parliamentary elections. Islamists win about two-thirds of the seats, half of which go to the Muslim Brotherhood. In June, the parliament is dissolved when a court rules it is illegal.

On June 30, 2012, Brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi becomes president after winning the election with 51.7 percent of the vote. He becomes Egypt’s first freely elected civilian and Islamist leader.

In August, Morsi replaces Defense Minister Hussein Tantawi with military intelligence chief Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi.

Morsi ousted, el-Sissi in power

On July 3, 2013, el-Sissi ousts Morsi after massive protests against his one-year rule and freezes the Islamist-drafted constitution. Morsi denounces a “coup” as authorities launch a crackdown against his supporters.

On Aug. 14, security forces move against two pro-Morsi protest camps in Cairo, killing at least 700 people.

Since Morsi’s removal, at least 1,400 people have been killed in a police crackdown on protests, mostly Islamists.

Tens of thousands of Morsi’s supporters have been arrested, and hundreds — including Morsi himself — have been sentenced to death.

In December, the government declares the Brotherhood a “terrorist” organization.

In January 2014, voters overwhelmingly approve a new constitution that strengthens the role of the army.

On June 8, el-Sissi is sworn in as president, having won 96.9 percent of a vote boycotted by the Brotherhood and secular dissidents.

In late 2015, a new parliament dominated by supporters of el-Sissi is elected.

Jihadi unrest, economic accords

On Feb. 10, 2015, during a visit to Cairo by President Vladimir Putin, Egypt and Russia agree to jointly build Egypt’s first nuclear power plant.

On Feb. 16, Cairo carries out airstrikes against the Islamic State group in neighboring Libya after a graphic video is released showing the beheading of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians there.

On Oct. 10, Egypt signs a deal with France to buy two Mistral warships.

On Oct. 31, a Russian passenger plane blows up in the Sinai, killing all 224 people on board. IS says it smuggled a bomb on board, while Moscow says an investigation has found that the plane was brought down by a bomb.

The jihadi group’s Egyptian affiliate, which is particularly active in the north of the Sinai Peninsula, has killed hundreds of policemen and soldiers.

On Dec. 16, Saudi Arabia pledges a total of $8 billion in investment and aid to Egypt, along with petrol supplies, over the next five years.

On Jan. 21, 2016, Chinese President Xi Jinping signs economic deals worth $15 billion with Egypt.