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Japan needs to humor its old teacher: China

by Michael Hoffman

Is it true, as the American philosopher George Santayana famously remarked just over a century ago, that “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it”? If it is, is the reverse necessarily false? Imagine he had said — his eye, for example, on the current discord between Japan and China — “Those who cannot forget the past are condemned to repeat it.” Would he have been talking nonsense?

The bilateral relationship between Japan and China is one of the oldest in the world, dating back at least 2,000 years. China civilized Japan — not by conquering it but by teaching it, step by painful step; from wet rice agriculture to metal-working to literacy to architecture to Buddhism, Confucianism and the art of government. China’s benevolent tutelage and Japan’s eager discipleship constitute a rare, if not altogether unprecedented and inimitable, form of international relations.

That’s worth remembering, to be sure, and mutual affection might well be the dominant mood today had Japan’s Western-style modernization, begun with the Meiji Restoration of 1868, not turned China, then still backward by Western standards of science, technology and industry, into a vast proving ground of Japanese mettle. Japan declared war on China in 1894 over territorial disputes in Korea. Within a year it was victorious; within 40 years it had turned large swaths of China into a debased, ravaged colony; within 50 it had perpetrated atrocities which today are as vivid in China’s collective memory as they are faded in Japan’s.

Too much remembering may be as bad as too much convenient forgetting. In rural Shanxi Province, some 200 km southwest of Beijing, a writer for Shukan Post magazine finds an “anti-Japan theme park.” The presentations are theater and film buttressed by light shows, audio bursts, computer graphics and other high-tech paraphernalia. In one sector visitors are handed laser guns and invited to “attack” actors dressed in wartime Japanese uniforms. In another is shown Japanese troops bayoneting Chinese infants, the soldiers laughing as the babies wail in agony. This may all have happened, but the purpose seems less to preserve historical truth than to whip up hysteria, and it seems to be succeeding. Last month the weekly Shukan Shincho cited a public-opinion survey indicating 90 percent of Beijing residents are primed for war — with “evil Japan” or “little Japan,” one or the other adjective having lately grown almost inseparable from the country’s name.

The immediate inflaming issue is of course Japan’s unilateral nationalization last September of the disputed Senkaku islets, which the Chinese call Diaoyu. That was a watershed — and yet, in another sense it was not. One of the pleasures of reviewing old press clippings is the recurring discovery that, as the French proverb has it, the more things change the more they remain the same. Early in 1997 Shukan Gendai magazine cited a poll showing Japan to be the country most disliked by the Chinese (by 47 percent of respondents, as against 37.4 percent who disliked the runner-up, the United States). A runaway Chinese bestseller of the time was titled “The China That Can Say No,” coauthored by one Jang Shaopo. The mocking reference to “The Japan That Can Say No” is unmissable. The Japanese book is a declaration of independence from the U.S., coauthored in 1988 by the nationalist politician Shintaro Ishihara — who, as governor of Tokyo until his resignation last October, was central in provoking the Senkaku row. Jang Shaopo boasted to Shukan Gendai back in 1997 of winning wild applause from Chinese lecture audiences with lines like, “China refrains from demanding war reparations, and the Japanese (repay us by) denying the Nanking Massacre ever took place! What kind of nonsense is that? Japan is nothing more than an American colony!”

Diplomatic relations between Japan and China, long severed, were “normalized” in 1972. That implied a tacit agreement to let the war slip not into oblivion but once and for all into the regrettable but irreversible past. The damage done could not be undone but could, perhaps, be transcended. The Senkakus were in dispute then too. Chinese negotiator Deng Xiaoping, who later as China’s paramount leader launched a modernization drive oddly reminiscent of Meiji’s, said at the normalization talks, “It does not matter if the (Senkaku/Diaoyu) question is shelved for some time, say 10 years. Our generation is not wise enough to find common language on this question. Our next generation will certainly be wiser.”

It was not, but at least it was as wise. The quiet shelving persisted — not for 10 years but for 40, until Japan’s central government acted as it did to head off an impetuous purchase bid by Tokyo under Gov. Ishihara.

Shukan Gendai earlier this month assessed the toll from the Japanese point of view. In 1980, it says, 78.6 percent of Japanese felt friendly towards China. Now only 18 percent do. If there is no serious war talk in Japan, there isn’t much cordiality either.

The Senkaku/Diaoyu conflict is ultimately not about the uninhabited rocks, or even about potentially exploitable natural resources in the vicinity, argue two sociologists Shukan Gendai interviews. Masachi Osawa and Daisaburo Hashizume, coauthors of a best seller titled “Odoroki no Chugoku” (“Surprising China”), say the real issue is national pride, and that Japan’s handling of the spate of Chinese incursions into waters Japan considers unalterably Japanese has been less than deft in leaving China no room for an honorable retreat.

They say nothing, strangely enough, of China’s lack of deftness. Perhaps they take it for granted. Through long centuries of greatness, China grew accustomed to seeing itself as the center of the world. Japan’s coming to it as pupil to teacher seemed quite natural — to both parties. To one of the parties, that still seems the appropriate relationship. Osawa and Hashizume seem to be urging Japan to gently humor its old teacher.

  • n k pant

    in the similar vein, India and Tibet were was China’s gurus in the long past but Beijing does not carry regards for its teachers. It first invaded Tibet in 1950 followed by attacks on India’s Himalayan border.

    • ChineseNationalist

      Tibet was a part of China longer than the history of the US, and European imperialism. It started in the Qing 1000 years ago. India was never really that big of an influence on China, no to the extend that Japan is to China.

      • Hanten

        Tibet only became a part of China after China violently invaded in the 1950s. China is trying to rely on a 1000 year old treaty document to say that the two countries are one. The treaty wasn’t an agreement to merge, though, it was an understanding that the two countries would help each other. Now China is still actively oppressing a fascinating culture in Tibet so they can exploit its natural resources.

      • Christopher-trier

        Gah! The Qing were established in 1644 and were not in control over much of China proper until the 1680s. Tibet and Xinjiang were brought under Manchu domination in the 18th century. A thousand years ago China was under the Song.

      • shaneSL

        as he said. tibet was under chinese rule since the 18th century. the US was founded in 1776. perhaps then the US should return their lands to the rightful british or native american owners?

      • Christopher-trier

        Um, no, what he said was that Tibet was under Qing rule 1000 years ago. The Qing were not even around at the time, nor was Tibet under Chinese control at the time. You are not even remotely discussing the same thing that I am, nor are your preposterous accusations even remotely close to addressing anything I actually said.

        I do not support Tibet breaking away from China. Most Tibetans do not live in Tibet and many Han Chinese reside in the province. Any partition would be bloody and traumatic for all sides. It’s not worth the tragedy. Moreover, China never dropped its claim on Tibet. It simply was not able to regain effective control over all territories within its borders until after Mao took over.

        The point I was trying to make is that if one wishes to make assertions based on history they should actually be right about what they’re saying. Missing things by over 600 years undermines one’s credibility.

      • shaneSL

        He got his facts wrong (and so do I at times), but so does the Western media everyday. But that does not mean that everything they say is false, though many of it is.

        Be more forgiving. Everyone makes mistakes. We Chinese too.

      • Christopher-trier

        Consider it and act of generosity. I’m not out of necessity anti-Chinese so by correcting him someone who is somewhat friendly to China is making the point rather than someone who is only seeking to discredit him — and by extension China as a whole.

      • http://www.facebook.com/codey.du Codey Du

        If you read the Chinese history textbook well, you’d know that the Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of china, and it only lasted 400 something years…1000 years ago China was in Ming or Yuan Dynasty.

      • Christopher-trier

        The Qing lasted from 1644-1911, that’s 267 years. In the year 1013 China was ruled by the Song dynasty.

    • appleaction

      LOL that is funny. Dalai Lama says China is the elder brother. his own words. Buddhism is the only thing and it is from Nepal. google “Buddha real portrait”. see what he really looked like. Buddhism wasnt even accepted into China until the Buddhists forcefully combined it with Taoism.

      • Christopher-trier

        Not quite. Buddhism was not initially accepted in China because it called for the renunciation of family ties and turning away from the world. For a society with strong families and a strong family system like China that was simply unacceptable. When Buddhists reinterpreted their teachings to make it palatable for the Chinese it became more widely accepted.

  • aichi

    Quite so. Behind this dispute, there is mistrust, indirect hostility towards US. for its China Containment Policy, Rise of Chinese Exceptionalism plus miscalculation in both gov. What Beijing really want is Japan’s reaffirm that the island is disputed. With hawkish gov. elected in both sides, more diplomatic maneuver is needed.

  • aichi

    Of course a risen China, might be quite offensive to neighbors, taught by history. Esp., this has been true for all historical and present superpowers. Opportunity is CJK’s economical tie could make the region another EU.

    To reach that, however, requires approval from US., a deep introspection for Japan and arguably also China, a resolution of Korea unification. All of these prerequisite, especially the second one, demand countries to teach the true history to their kids.

    • ChineseNationalist

      China do not need the approval of the US. China ‘s power unique, and overtime, CJK will be unified into a more “realistic” version of the EU.

    • Christopher-trier

      Do you really want to recreate the EU? It’s collapsing under the weight of its own contradictions and absurdities.

      • YourMessageHere

        The EU is in trouble – not collapsing – because it’s an excellent idea done poorly and timidly, not because it’s a bad idea.

      • Christopher-trier

        The EU could have been a good thing. It went too far, too fast and as always — poorly done. No one is calling for a return to the inward looking and paranoid nationalism of the 1890s-1910s, but to think that uniting a continent that never was truly united is absurd. The Scandinavians found a system that works — co-operation, compatible standards, freedom of movement, and economic integration without the sheer follies of the EU.

      • Ken5745

        The EU was a great idea but it was the euro that was the Achilles Heel. The proof is that though the UK is nearly broke it is not in crisis as with several QEs, it can print itself out of trouble as it is not in the eurozone.

        If Greece, Portugal or Spain are not in the eurozone they can print themselves out of a euro straits-jacket too.

  • http://twitter.com/aristeon84 My New Life in Asia

    the relationship between China and Japan in the past cannot be repeated today, unless Japan accepts once again to be the disciple and subordinate of the Middle Kingdom.

    The most important thing for Japan and its allies to do is not to panic in front of a rising China, but to understand that what we need is a new, a better economic policy. During the last decades, neoliberal dogmas have slowed down growth and deindustrialized parts of the rich world. Fixing these problems has absolute priority, because only a thriving economy has enough international weight to resist other countries. Second, it must be made clear to China that Japan cannot cede the Senkakus / Diaoyus. This will never happen, it would be a complete loss of face for Japan if it renounced its sovereignty over the islets. However, “Asian-style” diplomacy, which is based on insisting on one’s own position while not discussing the problem openly and clearly in order to find a solution, is not going to help find a viable way out.

    leo prades @my-new-life-in-asia.blogspot

  • Christopher-trier

    No, not really. Under the Tokugawa China was officially denigrated and contact was carried out through Korea which both Japan and China saw as inferior. The Japanese were also moving away from seeing themselves as merely China’s pupil and were looking back into their own past to find their own traditions, philosophies, artistic styles, literary forms, etcetera well before the Meiji. That Japan was heavily influenced by China is moot. Most of it benefited Japan. The relationship was described my Hoffman, however, is not quite accurate. Korea yes, Japan no. The Japanese were not quite that close. Hoffman also forgets one thing: China had something to offer then, it no longer has much to offer now. China is far behind Japan now. It’s far behind South Korea now. The only place where Chinese culture truly lives is Taiwan because the mainland has been destroyed by warfare, the Cultural Revolution, and crass commercialisation.

    • ChineseNationalist

      China have nothing to offer? They have Chinese people, which is really the source of culture.

      • 乃亜 印場

        I think this is something that people often overlook. The people and the government are two different things, especially with a government like China’s. While I hope China’s government improves (or fails and is rebooted), I wish nothing but success for the hard working people in China and all other countries. It isn’t fair to judge people by where they happened to be born.

    • 思德

      I agree that the mainland is a mess. However, a significant portion of Japanese income is the result of connections to the Chinese market, and vice versa… once cannot write the other off so easily. Japan, if it is smart, will diversify its interests a bit more, which I think is what it is doing in Southeast Asia at the moment.

  • CMLiu

    Good analysis. Many Chinese are loathe to admit that we are not that dissimilar to the Japanese. Our current nationalism is an exact mirror of Japanese nationalism during its imperialist era. We simply live in different times, under different governments. This is simply the result of a growing nation, puberty, if you will. It will pass. The best thing for Japan to do to is to focus on itself and keep relations with China cordial.

    • http://www.facebook.com/codey.du Codey Du

      You and I are on exactly the same thinking-track. High-five. If you examine Japanese nationalistic emotions during WWII, and compare it to current China, it’s almost identical. At that time Japanese were exposed to commercials and movies that portrayed Americans as evils. Cartoons were designed to show heroistic acts of the Imperial Army against the American troops. Foreign movies were banned from broadcasting. Guess what? Which apparently the People’s Government is banning Google, Facebook, Wikipedia that contain information which might trigger nation-wide doubt toward its political party’s history. Currently every war/kungfu movie produced has this evil Japanese character that will eventually be defeated by the almighty Tai-chi master.

      Ultimately, the final lesson learned is that: hatred only guides a nation toward negative results. Japanese citizens had no idea that their fleets were getting sunken in the Pacific, and blindly contributed whatever they had to the Imperial Government. In the end all that went down to ashes after Tokyo Air Raid. Now this nation became one of the most peaceful, humble figure in the world with 1st world living standards.

      I hope to see both nation walk hand-in-hand, economic cooperation with cultural exchange. Forget about the past because it’s not worth it to hate someone. China and Japan has a lot in common, and a lot to share with each other. Be it human resource, technology, natural resource, a lot of partnership opportunity exist between the two nations.

      Bottom Line: Please Stop Hating, Make Love.

  • Ken5745

    There is no need to humor China. If Japan and China agree to implement the agreement by Prime minister Tanaka and Deng XiaoPing in the 70s to let wiser future generations of Japan and China to decide how to resolve the Diaoyu/Senkaku issue, there will be no more crisis.

    Once that is agreed by Japan and China, both countries and South Korea can proceed to negotiate for a trilateral Free Trade Agreement to boost trade in the three countries to balance the EU common market and NAFTA.

    Japan has a lot at stake because 24%of its export go to China.

  • Mukesh Sharma

    stop buying from China ..and problem is solved..stop investing in china ..and your own country would grow..ignore the pain and family stands to gain..

    • Ken5745

      Not true. Japan can grow again if it can export more than the 24% currently to China. But with the tension created by Abe and his ministers, it is Japan that will bear the wrong end of a boycott.