The March 2011 disasters have been harder on women than men, according to a recent government report.
A study found that 50.2 percent of women in Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture, are likely suffering serious sleep disorders, compared with 32.4 percent of the men, while in Rikuzentakata, Iwate Prefecture, the rate is 44.4 percent for women and 27.7 percent for men.
The rate for severe mental stress is 8.4 percent for women and 6.0 percent for men in Ishinomaki, and 7.0 percent for women and 3.3 percent for men in Rikuzentakata.
The study was conducted from last June to August in Ishinomaki and from October to December in Rikuzentakata.
It also found that 82.1 percent of women from 870 victims in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima said they escaped in a group after the disasters, compared with 64.0 percent of the men, suggesting they have better community ties, officials said.