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U.S. author recounts ‘lecture’ he got about ‘comfort women’ from uninvited Japanese guests

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The debate on Japan’s history of wartime sexual slavery (aka the “comfort women” issue) has heated up again, with the Japanese government extending its efforts to revise school textbooks to overseas.

In November, McGraw-Hill, publisher of the world history textbook “Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, Vol. 2,” by history professors Herbert Ziegler and Jerry Bentley, was contacted by Japan’s Consulate General in New York. The request: that two paragraphs (i.e., the entire entry) on the comfort women be deleted.

On Jan. 15, McGraw-Hill representatives met with Japanese diplomats and refused the request, stating that the scholars had properly established the historical facts. Later that month, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe directly targeted the textbook in a parliamentary session, stating that he was “shocked” to learn that his government had “failed to correct the things it should have.”

In the March issue of the American Historical Association’s newsmagazine “Perspectives on History,” 20 prominent historians, including professor Ziegler, signed a letter to the editor titled “Standing with the historians of Japan.” They stated that they “agree with Herbert Ziegler that no government should have the right to censor history,” and “oppose the efforts of states or special interests to pressure publishers or historians to alter the results of their research for political purposes.”

Professor Ziegler met with JBC on Feb. 17.

JBC: What has McGraw-Hill been asked to revise?

Herbert Ziegler: The original offense was the comfort women, and I think they essentially wanted me to leave it out or change it. I got a lot of references and emails about recent scholarship by Japanese scholars that pointed out how incorrect my writing is.

It was the comfort women, the Nanjing Massacre, and one other small thing that nobody else has talked about but the Consul (for Political Affairs) in Honolulu: In the first volume of the textbook, there is a map that shows the Sea of Japan labeled as such, but in one instance, in parentheses, it says “East Sea.” And I got lectured on how incorrect that is when the consul came to my office. I didn’t know it was there because the first volume my co-author wrote, not me. I didn’t even know it was a controversial subject.

JBC: Have you been personally contacted by the Abe government?

HZ: I was contacted by the local Consul for Political Affairs in Honolulu in November, wanting to discuss my textbook. I thought it was the oddest thing I’ve ever heard. “Discuss my textbook?” I said I wasn’t interested. He gave me times that I could visit the consulate, and he kept persisting. So I told them I talked to my publisher about this, and they said to forward the consulate’s concerns to their public relations department. So I got another email (from the consul) saying, “Well, New York is New York, Honolulu is Honolulu, and I need to see you in person.” I didn’t reply right away.

Next thing I know, I’m sitting in my office just like you and I are sitting here today — the door’s open, I have office hours. I was eating lunch. In pops the consul and an interpreter. They literally pulled up chairs and sat down. And then they started talking to me about my fallacies and problems, and why they wanted me to change things. I said, a bit spitefully, “It’s a little late now, the sixth edition just came out and it is unchanged, because I wasn’t aware that I had to change any of it.” And then we got into this discussion and I said, “Now look” — and here’s the thing I always want to get across — “It’s a textbook.”

A successful textbook gets revised every two to three years. One reason for revision is that interpretations change, and the facts may change. The publisher hires maybe a dozen specialists to go over this text, and they write critiques and reviews. When I look at them, I have to decide whether or not their critiques are justifiable, or out of nowhere, and so forth. And then, my co-author and I revise our text, as necessary, especially in regards to recent literature on the subject matter.

So I’m not opposed to revising anything, and if there were 300,000 victims of the Nanjing Massacre instead of the 400,000 I wrote, I will change it to 300,000. But very quickly I try to establish that my issue here had to do with the government. I said, “I don’t care if it’s a domestic or foreign government telling me what to write and what not to write.” And I told them I found that very offensive. It’s a violation of my freedom of speech and of academic freedom. It’s not like a few scholars had contacted me and said, “I read this book and I think there are a few inaccuracies.”

Did you know that in the 15 years this book has been out, not one reviewer hired by the publisher to ferret out mistakes has ever questioned anything about the comfort women? I’d never had a single Japanese scholar contact me, nor any Japanese newspaper, for 15 years. It is only now, all of a sudden. I’m not naive; I’m aware that this is the Abe’s government’s big campaign to do what I would consider revision of Japanese history.

I’m not a specialist in East Asian history. I teach world history, meaning I know very little about many things. I’m largely a scholar of German history. Germans had to deal with their past, especially during World War II. It wasn’t easy, it took time, but by and large the Germans have acknowledged and come to terms with the ugly parts of their past. The Japanese never have.

I suspect that young people in Japan grow up without knowing half the time what went on in the Second World War. That’s just a guess; I do not know. And maybe in Japan, and I do not know this either, the government has control over textbooks in schools. Not in America. Mine is not the only textbook, so people are free to pick and buy whatever they want.

So to me it came down to this interference of a foreign government: Even if I were 90 percent wrong about what I wrote, I would not revise it just because the consul of the Japanese Consulate tells me to — it’s ridiculous.

JBC: Did they listen to what you had to say?

HZ: No. Total lecture mode. Everything I wrote was just totally wrong. It became obvious to me what was going on. It didn’t matter what argument I might have made to convince them otherwise. It was a one-sided conversation.

You see, if you would have walked in and introduced yourself as a scholar of modern Japanese history, and you had taken offense at things that I am propagating, we’d sit down and talk about it. That’s not how it was. It was a guy in a suit accompanied by a woman telling me I’m wrong, wrong. “Retract it. Revise it.”

JBC: Why this book?

HZ: I have no idea. There’s one other connection I should bring up, and it’s been incorrectly reported in many media: This is a world history textbook, designed for introductory courses at the college and university level. I don’t know the numbers, but on occasion the book is also sold to high schools that offer AP (advanced placement) courses in world history. So some high school students read the text.

The Japanese think it’s a high school textbook. There’s a great misunderstanding here. According to the Japanese consul, my book is sold all over Los Angeles to schools, and I am not exaggerating: I was accused of poisoning the minds, especially of Korean-American children, who now have taken it upon themselves to intimidate and bully Japanese-American schoolchildren.

Now, my thinking is, whether they’re Japanese- or Korean-Americans, most teenagers aged 16 to 17 don’t give a flying leap, and wouldn’t know anything about this issue at all. So I checked into this whole thing. It turns out that the textbook may have been used in Glendale, California, where they had the whole issue with the comfort woman statue. That’s what I put together after the fact.

But they were here telling me that I was poisoning the minds of children against Japan. They acted under the impression that I had sold millions of books to high schools. That’s untrue — it’s a college textbook.

JBC: As a historian, what do you think about a government getting involved?

HZ: I offer an advanced course on Nazi Germany, and this morning before I saw you I was talking about the Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment, and its effort to control public opinion. We talked about the press — self-censorship out of fear, for instance — so all of this obviously goes against my grain. Germans nowadays are very sensitive about interference about press and free speech. So when somebody tries to control what I write, it’s ringing bells.

I understand about how victors write history. There’s a certain amount of truth to that, but I think good historians will strive to uncover something more than just that. But whenever a government takes control, it is most likely self-serving. Therein lies the first rub, at least as far as a historian is concerned. We seek the truth, however imperfect this pursuit is.

But by definition, I think most historians think that whatever the government does must be looked at very critically, not swallowed wholesale. The odds are that if the government is in control of the historical narrative, then it is self-serving and there is something hidden. There’s a skepticism that comes immediately to the fore.

Why the pressure tactics? Do they really think that everything that has been written outside of Japan is so incorrect, and is an effort by the victors of 70 years ago to shape Japanese history in such a dark sort of fashion? I don’t understand it, actually.

The full text in “Traditions and Encounters” on the comfort women is at www.debito.org/?p=13103. The full Ziegler interview will be up at The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus website (www.japanfocus.org) in a few days. Twitter @arudoudebito. Comments: community@japantimes.co.jp

  • johnniewhite

    I am astonished to read how Prof. Ziegler behaved — as a scholar he should demonstrate modesty to what he does not know, and when pointed out something wrong of what he has written, he should respond professionally, and not easily offended. Clearly he isn’t a specialist himself in the history of Japan as he admits in this interview. He also does not feel responsible for what he has written. This is a very important article, and I thank The Japan Times for publishing it.

    • Ken5745

      IMHO Prof Ziegler behaved professionally. It is the Abe Govt that tries to change history 15 years after the book was written. Please read what he said:

      “Did you know that in the 15 years this book has been out, not one reviewer hired by the publisher to ferret out mistakes has ever questioned anything about the comfort women? I’d never had a single Japanese scholar contact me, nor any Japanese newspaper, for 15 years. It is only now, all of a sudden. I’m not naive; I’m aware that this is the Abe’s government’s big campaign to do what I would consider revision of Japanese history.”

      The $64.000 question is : Why now?

    • DC Musicfreak

      It is important, but for exactly the opposite reason you think it is important.

    • Alexis Sanchez

      What’s more astonishing is the temerity with which the JP consul behaved, harassing him at his office and demanding an unmerited revision – unsubstantiated by any material evidence besides their insistence that he is wrong. These JPs behave like a 5 year old kids!! It’s always “oh the Chinese and Koreans are lying about me ~”. Weak.

    • Barry Rosenfeld

      I agree. As he pointed out, he doesn’t know his material, but yet like an American know nothing, he sticks his neck out.

    • Lennon

      That is what I thought as well, his responses feels more like ranting than an objective response a scholar is expected to give.

  • Ron NJ

    It really is disgusting how the current government of Japan is attempting to erase history and sweep the blemishes under the rug. They could have been past this all if they had followed Germany’s mark and truly accepted what they did, educated their people about it, and seriously attempted to make amends (nb, this does not mean giving people money). Sadly, none of this has happened, and instead we have them going the opposite direction, outright denying that these things happened at all and trying to pressure even foreign entities to conform to their warped views.

    Really disgusting, and it makes me very sad for the future knowing that there are people being raised in Japan who likely have no concept of any of the atrocities committed by Japan during World War 2. They will grow up in the world wondering “why do so many of our neighbors have such strong feelings about Japan?” because they were never educated properly and told about the events that stirred those feelings. It really is just heartbreaking. The governments of Japan and its neighbors, being so geographically close, could be doing so much to foster youth exchange programs to ensure that future generations don’t have to deal with the enmity that is so strong in the region, instead fostering a sense of unity and equality rather than the current oft-held feelings of superiority and hatred. So many missed chances to build bridges, and instead here Japan goes burning them left and right because they’re too proud to admit that Japan actually did do some bad things during the war.

    • johnniewhite

      Why do you come to such a conclusion? Isn’t there another answer, namely that Japanese has finally decided to speak out as the threat from China is imminent? Please look at the events more widely, including what is happening in South China Sea. Naturally, another answer will emerge.

    • tisho

      Well this happened because after the war ended, unlike in Germany where they had a full reform of their government, the criminals were executed and a new government came to be, in Japan the criminals got head positions in the government. War criminals became education ministers, interior ministers etc. so it was obvious that they would continue their narrative. This, combined with a culture of deception, face saving and complete inability to acknowledge ones mistakes and reflect on yourself equals the current situation.

    • Lennon

      Well, your narrative shows how little you really know about Japan, almost every Japanese knows of the war crimes their previous generations had committed hence the nature of their humility and efforts to “do good”, not discussing it openly does not mean ignorance, not openly telling people how Japanese in the past slaughtered humans in war does not mean they’re not ashamed of their history, perhaps it is about time you stop forcing your opinion on how things should be done down another culture’s throat and respect the differences in cultures as part of human diversity.

      Japan does not deny their war crimes, they merely wishes historians to not exxagerate those crimes by inflating the number of casualties and/or the degree of atrocities committed.

      In my opinion, do you know whats sadder? for a country like China, a victim of war who has experienced first-hand the suffering of wars to ratchet up military tension in the Asia region and constantly use their WW2 victimisation as a political tool to incite violent acts and hatred towards Japan as a way to distract their citizens from their low standards of living, you’d think that a country who claims to be ‘for the people’ and understands the suffering of war would be significantly more responsible and peaceful but the inverse seems to be true in China’s case.

      To be quite honest, I doubt you have an in-depth understanding academically about Japan, Japanese, their culture or their society but yet you certainly do enjoy criticising them and overly-simplifying complex societal matters by branding it all as mere Japanese arrogance, hubris, ignorance, feeling of superiority, pride, ego and whatever negative words you can churn up.

    • Steve Jackman

      This is a really excellent article, especially for exposing the widespread and ever-present problem of “uninvited guests” in Japan, who are in the habit of showing up at the homes, public spaces or workplace of anyone who does not toe the party line. In this case the “uninvited guests” happen to be Japanese diplomats, however, depending on the situation they can range from Yakuzas to other hired-guns who are common criminals and are paid to get a job done against a targeted person. Such persistent pressure, coercion, intimidation, bullying and harassment are the dark underbelly of Japan which few foreigners get to see.

      But, as most Japanese know it is always there, and it is a big reason why many Japanese learn to keep to themselves, self-censor, conform and readily bow to pressure. Things in Japan are rarely what they appear to be, so one has to be skeptical when someone Japanese or non-Japanese who had previously been critical of Japan retracts their story to suddenly conform to the “official” or “sanctioned” narrative. The question should always be asked if there were dark forces operating behind the scenes. This type of thing also contributes to the uniquely Japanese form of corruption which is so common in many Japanese institutions, like the judiciary, since they are not truly independent.

  • Taira Matsuoka

    If a Japanese history textbook mistakenly says
    “American soldiers kidnapped 200,000 Japanese girls as
    spoils of war given by Douglas MacArthur, and happily raped them and massacred them in the latter half of 1945”, how do you feel? Is it just about “freedom of speech or academic freedom”?

    Professor Herbert Ziegler, who is supposed to be a professional historian, is basically doing the same thing. Totally wrong.

    When pointed out, Professor Ziegler claims “It’s a violation of my freedom of speech and of academic freedom.”

    Maybe Japanese Consulate people could have acted smarter, but when you are disseminating totally wrong information and groundlessly insulting and defaming other people including my ancestors, that is not at all “freedom of speech or academic freedom.”

    What Professor Ziegler teaches American students in the textbook is way beyond factual interpretation.

    • blondein_tokyo

      If someone, somewhere, wrote an academic text with deliberate falsities, then no- it would not be a matter of freedom of speech, but a matter of academic honesty.

      That is not the case here, however, because it is an undeniable truth that many of these women were either
      lied to by the recruiters, sold by their families, or else kidnapped and taken by force to the brothels where they were raped repeatedly. The Japanese government has admitted this, so it is not even in question.

      The only part that I see as arguable is the culpability of the Japanese government. Although it is suspected, and is highly likely, it has not actually been proven that the government itself was complicit in giving the orders. The text should at the very least reflect that controversy; and that should be the debate we are having.

    • Alexis Sanchez

      Here’s a fact for you scumbag: Your Ex-PM Nakasone in 1973 bragged to the head of Sankei Shinbun that he erected a comfort house in Indonesia that could serve the sexual needs of 3000 of his men.

      Live with the truth and stand tall or die like a useless dog, just like those war criminals you are defending

    • Raansu

      Except comfort women was a historical fact…..

    • Toolonggone

      You are missing the point in the article. This is not about the comparison between history writings of Japan and those of US or the world. This is all about the power of national government intervening into education of other country. I don’t have problem with conservative historians or activists making critical response to what he said: they are exercising their rights to speak. But, the government officials barging in with both guns blazing??? That’s completely different story. Never have I seen any country sending government officials to order academic scholars who are not subject to designated country for rewriting national history.

    • KenjiAd

      I think you might have some basic misunderstanding on the American concept of “freedom of speech, academic freedom” and why Mr Ziegler got offended.

      “Freedom of speech,” as typically understood by American professors, is that the government does not interfere with what they say/write about anything, no matter how offensive, or totally wrong, the speech/writing might be. If an academician said/wrote something factually wrong, stupid, offensive, whatever, it would be other academicians’ job to refute it.

      If, on the other hand, the US government came in and told him/her to correct the error, the vast majority of American professors would interpret it as governmental censorship or violation of academic freedom.

    • Hendrix

      You are talking complete nonsense..

  • 武 東郷

    What is a historian supposed to do? A good historian makes his best efforts to get to the historical facts and truths by getting into the primary sources, then he presents his research results to his peers for review.
    In this case, Prof.Ziegler obviously knows little about the East Asia but the publisher still asked him to write about the East Asia. How did he do it?
    He did it based on what somebody else already wrote, just copying and pasting. He claims that none of the reviewers hired by the publisher had ever made any comments. I just wonder what the qualifications of those reviewers are. Are they capable of having access to the primary sources and do they have enough knowledge and experience as researchers of the East Asia? As far as the area of his specialty is concerned, I bet that he will not take the same approach because if he does he risks his academic credentials on the line. So, such is the level of the history education in America. What a shame! I want to see the bibliography of his reference materials.

  • Internet Terracotta Tiger

    Why are comments disabled/unallowed on this writer’s other column? Is the writer or the JT afraid of what they might hear? And if so, why do I pay the Japan Times?

  • Toolonggone

    The real issue here is the role of national government. It well explains the magnitude of narcissistic mentality smacking into the canvas of Japanese political culture.

  • meneldal

    The Japanese are being very hypocritical when it comes to accusing the US of writing their history and trying to make them look bad. The US have covered the worse (human experiments in China that doesn’t get brought often) so they’re not really in any position to complain.

    I think now in Europe, no country has a majority that hates Germany while it was actually more common before Hitler at some points (around WWI for example). Everyone agrees that Nazis were bad but in Japan not so much. Germans are fine saying “people before me did terrible things but I don’t have to feel ashamed for it, I’m not the one who did it”. Maybe Japanese people should get over protecting the honour of dead people, especially if everyone agrees they were bad.

  • Japanese Bull Fighter

    I sent Ziegler an email asking for the text of the passages that the Consultate General objected to and the sources on which he based those passages. I made no comment in my email about the accuracy or inaccuracy of those passages. I asked for this information because (1) his textbook is not readily available in Japan and (2) I wanted students to know what he had actually written rather than having to rely on vague descriptions and assertions. I used his academic address. The mail did not bounce. He has not replied. From what I have read, those who signed the letter protesting alleged censorship did so without knowing what was actually in the textbook or what the Consulate General had actually said to Ziegler. This was, I think, irresponsible. Arudou Debito is to be thanked for getting Ziegler to speak although it would have been even better had he reproduced the passages in question and the sources on which they were based.

    • Shaun O’Dwyer

      Fair call. Still, the main issue-as others have pointed out- is that this is not a job for government officials. If qualified J or Non-J historians have a problem with the textbook, it is their job to take the issue up with its writers. The Japanese government now looks like it has politicized the issue. A few more high profile missteps like this, in the 70th anniversary of the war’s end, could generate resentment- and even a reawakening of recently dormant memories of Japan’s wartime atrocities against American servicemen and civilians. And that would be very detrimental to Japan’s national interest.

    • Barry Rosenfeld

      I don’t why this man who calls himself DEBITO thinks that Ziegler is “professional historian.” No one seems to have read this:
      “I’m not a specialist in East Asian history. I teach world history, meaning I know very little about many things. I’m largely a scholar of German history. Germans had to deal with their past, especially during World War II. It wasn’t easy, it took time, but by and large the Germans have acknowledged and come to terms with the ugly parts of their past. The Japanese never have.”

      Ziegler is not qualified to write on this chapter of history, especially as its extremely contentious.

    • Toolonggone

      Were you really expecting you would receive a reply in no time from a person who has never met before or doesn’t really know who you are? That’s just so naïve.

    • Joce

      You couldn’t find the textbook on Amazon?

  • Ian SUTTLE (サトル・イアン)

    So the point of this article is that there was a misunderstanding. A historian wrote a textbook for university students, a single school district forced a whole bunch of high school students to use it, and the reps for the Japanese government got mad at the author because such a book should not be used in high schools? And Debito not only gives an outlet for, but actually ENCOURAGES the historian in question to criticize the Japanese government, and the school system in said country (about which he himself admits he knows very little).

    Great hard-hitting, critical, balanced and fair journalism, Debito. Keep it up!

  • Alastar

    I dunno, having just read it again, Report 49 still seems to describe what we would now consider to be human trafficking.

    The actions against Asahi have not yet succeeded, so as of right now they are meaningless. Plus Asahi has issued retractions for stories based on a small amount of evidence which turned out to be untrue. If you have 5,000 things, and two of them turn out to be not true, the remaining 4,998 things do not vicariously become false.

    What motivation do these women and all of the historians have to lie? Someone said this above, but the only time people in the West think poorly of the Japanese today is when they start denying these things. Our relationship with Germany today has demonstrated that we are more than capable of forgiving a people for waging an imperialist war of aggression involving unspeakable atrocities and offenses to human dignity, even when they admit it.

    What if your friend’s father were accused of rape and murder and there were literally hundreds of witnesses and physical evidence that corroborated these witnesses’ accounts, but your friend was unwavering in his insistence that his father was innocent?

  • Rozza

    The history thst Abe wants to control is 70 to 80 years old, most all of those directly involved will be gone soon enough yet the denial keeps giving it life. However I cannot but see an irony in not only the US but the West generally in the age of terror. Though it’s only 14 years ago, still quite fresh, good luck with doing any serious historical work on 9/11 let alone getting it into a textbook.

  • Kevin

    So you’re saying historians around the world base there research on what a newspaper in Japan once said? Are you serious? That would never be accepted by any academic publisher. Ridiculousness.

  • johnniewhite

    With that article I have a lot of issues — please read the comment section.

  • Namenomnomnom

    “due to the looming threats of the Soviet Union in the pacific” would only pull it’s weight in your argument if there weren’t a similar or larger looming threat of the Soviet Union in Europe.

  • Japanese Bull Fighter

    For those who might be interested in what this textbook actually says about the comfort women rather than making ad hominenm attacks on other posters, the following search string should take you to an article that purports to reproduce the passages in question: ziegler bentley Traditions and Encounters hatena 1416798771. I have not posted the URL because it appears that putting a URL in a comment, even a URL such as one for Amazon in Japan, triggers JT moderation and censorship. This article is in Japanese but it also gives what it says is the contents of the textbook on this issue. I am not at the present time in a position to verify the accuracy of the reproduced text.

  • Manfred Deutschmann

    They were clearly using Yakuza intimidation tactics.

  • Frank Schirmer

    Uhm, no. You’ll have to understand that I’ll rather base my assessment on Japanese election results rather than your group of friends’ opinions – which on top were voiced towards a foreigner (you) and therefore probably not what they really think.
    Election results are cold, hard facts. Everything else is just hearsay or anecdotal at best.
    When an outspoken racist and bigot like Ishihara can get re-elected 5 times as mayor of Japan’s economical and political centre, and a thug like Abe is re-elected thrice (for now), that is plenty of evidence that the majority of Japanese are backing his agenda.

  • jimbo jones

    from one academic to another; by uncouth i meant hilarious

  • timefox

    The one necessary to man here isn’t the fact that I had no compulsion taking. Only the delusion which can insult Japan is needed.

  • KUIDAORE

    In the United States, academic freedom means freedom of the propaganda.

  • inawarminister

    Please share all the myriad bloodbathe that the Western Allies and Soviets do in WW2 too!
    I mean, why just focus onto Germany and Japan?

  • JSS00

    Sounds like the Internet right-wingers of Japan. Pitiful.

  • Hendrix

    a very good article which exposes the dark undercurrents in Abes regime and the use of yakuza style intimidation, the good thing is that the whole thing is backfiring and bringing Japans war crimes into the spotlight where they should be until the japanese can own up and stop lying.

  • Hendrix

    you are sick…

  • Toolonggone

    You are giving me a couple of links that seem to be oxymoron. The one above is written by Hata, who is a notorious right-wing denier. Are you sure you’re crediting him as a scholar for providing historical truth based on neutral account? I hardly see him as neutral because he has been criticized for throwing his male chauvinistic mentality upon female victims and those who indeed had a harsh experience in wartime. He is one of those who were behind the scene of NHK’s ETV documentary sabotage incident in 2001.

    Also, the article in the other link is written by a Japanese woman who lives in Michigan. Her position is quite antithetical to Hata and deniers.

  • tosh kino

    Prostitutes in South
    Korea for the U.S. military (Search on web)

    Please read the following.

    Park Chung-hee, who ruled South Korea during the 1960s and 1970s, and the father of incumbent president Park Geun-hye, encouraged the sex trade in order to generate revenue.
    During the 1960s, camp town prostitution and related businesses generated nearly 25 percent of the South Korean GNP.
    According to United States Forces Korea’s policy, “Hiring prostitutes is incompatible with our military core values”, but in South Korea, most women who used to live around U.S. Army camps were prostitutes. In the Allied-occupied Korea, between the 1950s and 1980s, the total number of women amounted to over one million.
    Some women chose to become prostitutes.Other women were coerced into prostitution.
    Prostitutes for U.S. soldiers were esteemed to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy by South Koreans, they were also lowest status within the hierarchy of prostitution.
    (photo) North Korean nurses captured by South Korean and US soldiers. Captured North Korean women were sometimes raped and forced to work as sex slaves.
    Is this history a secret for the U.S?