| Jan 17, 2015

Seeking independence through civilization

by Michael Hoffman

For the first time in 600 years Japan was threatened by foreign aggression. One among many differences between the 19th century American threat and the 13th-century Mongol invasions is this: 13th-century Japan was fiercely militarist, 19th-century Japan was impotently militarist. What to do? There ...

An Encouragement of Learning

Jan 4, 2014

An Encouragement of Learning

by Elliott Samuels

Yukichi Fukuzawa, who appears on every Japanese ¥10,000 note, wrote “An Encouragement of Learning” as a collection of essays while completing his masterpiece, “An Outline of a Theory of Civilization” (1875). The essays highlight the basic tenets of his fundamental philosophical beliefs — freedom, ...