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The term “industrial revolution” used to be a proper noun referring to a series of industrial transformations driven by technological innovations that took place mainly in Britain from the latter half of the 18th century to the 19th century and a resulting series of structural social changes.

Today, however, the original industrial revolution is referred to as the first industrial revolution. The current general consensus is that the world we live in is in the midst of a fourth industrial revolution, following the second and third industrial revolutions. Thus the term “industrial revolution” has changed from a proper noun into a more generic term. What it now means is transformations in the industrial and social structure brought about by technological innovations.

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