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My remark that the memoirs of late former U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara were reflective of the “Western spirit” came from my recognition that the concepts of “European” and “American” share the same Western root. The concept of “American” here must also be limited to what is characterized by the United States and Canada, not South America. I call Europe, the U.S. and Canada “Western” even though one can see that Europe, typically the European Union, has shown many conflicts of interests vis-a-vis the U.S.

I condemn any aggressive war, including that fought by Japan in the 1930s and ’40s. We are not proud of that. And we are not so naive as to defend our human-exploiting past in which industrialized nations in Europe as well as Japan invaded and colonized weaker nations.

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