German Chancellor Olaf Scholz surprised the world, and his own country, when he responded to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine with a €100 billion (¥13.68 trillion) plan to arm Germany, send weapons to Ukraine and end his nation’s deep dependence on Russian energy.

It was Germany’s biggest foreign policy shift since the Cold War, what Scholz called a "Zeitenwende” — an epochal change — that won applause for his leadership at home and abroad.

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