BEIJING – A Chinese lunar rover landed on the far side of the moon Thursday, a global first that boosts Beijing’s ambitions to become a space superpower.
After touching down, the Chang’e 4 probe sent a photo of the far side to the Queqiao satellite, which is relaying communications to controllers on Earth, state broadcaster CCTV said.
Beijing is pouring billions into its military-run space program. It hopes to have a crewed space station by 2022 and eventually send humans to the moon.
The Chang’e 4 lunar probe mission — named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology — was launched in December from the southwestern Xichang launch center.
It is the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu (Jade Rabbit) rover mission in 2013.
Unlike the near side of the moon, which offers many flat areas to touch down on, the far side is mountainous and rugged.
The moon is tidally locked to Earth in its rotation, so one side always faces us.
Chang’e 4 is carrying six experiments from China and four from abroad, including low-frequency radio astronomical studies, which aim to take advantage of the lack of interference on the far side.
The rover will also conduct mineral and radiation tests, the China National Space Administration has said, according to state news agency Xinhua.
It was not until 1959 that the Soviet Union captured the first images of the moon’s mysterious and heavily cratered far side.
No lander or rover has ever previously touched the surface there, and it is no easy technological feat — China has been preparing for this moment for years.
A major challenge for such a mission was communicating with the robotic lander, because there is no direct line of sight for signals to the far side of the moon. As a solution, China in May blasted the Queqiao (“Magpie Bridge”) satellite into the moon’s orbit, positioning it to relay data and commands between the lander and Earth.
In another extreme hurdle, during the lunar night — which lasts 14 Earth days — temperatures drop to as low as minus 173 degrees Celsius (minus 279 Fahrenheit).
During the lunar day, also lasting 14 Earth days, temperatures soar as high as 127 C (261 F). The rover’s instruments have to withstand those fluctuations and it has to generate enough energy to sustain itself during the long night.
Adding to the difficulties, Chang’e 4 was sent to the Aitken Basin in the lunar south pole region — known for its craggy and complex terrain.
Yutu also conquered those challenges and, after initial setbacks, surveyed the moon’s surface for 31 months. Its success provided a major boost to China’s space program.
Beijing is planning to send another lunar lander, Chang’e 5, next year to collect samples and bring them back to Earth.