A journalist close to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has defended her view that Korean women who were sent to Japanese wartime military brothels were not sex slaves, and accused a liberal-leaning newspaper of fabrication.
One of the newspaper’s reporters said a day earlier that the journalist’s comments triggered threats against him and had interfered with the settlement of the issue between Japan and South Korea.
Their public spat — a defamation suit by reporter Takashi Uemura against journalist Yoshiko Sakurai — highlights Japan’s struggle to come to terms with its wartime atrocities more than 70 years after World War II.
The two represent the divide. The conservatives hold the Asahi Shimbun newspaper, where Uemura used to work, responsible for spreading the impression that all “comfort women” were coerced. Liberals say evidence, including court documents and accounts of the women, shows many people were forced into sexual slavery.
Sakurai told a news conference on Friday that she sympathizes with the comfort women despite their being “prostitutes” but that “I still think the Asahi and Mr. Uemura should be held accountable” for hurting Japan’s image. She said Japan can’t have a unified view of its wartime history because of what she called media bias.
Sakurai spearheads the view of Japanese nationalists that comfort women were voluntary prostitutes, and that Japan has been unfairly criticized for a practice they say is common in any country at war. Sakurai, a former newscaster at Nippon Television, is close to the country’s powerful conservative political lobby, which includes many lawmakers in Abe’s Cabinet and ruling Liberal Democratic Party and backs Abe’s campaign to amend the pacifist Constitution.
Uemura, who teaches at a university in South Korea and heads a liberal Japanese magazine, says he is worried about a widening gap in the understanding of wartime history between the two countries, especially as female students in South Korea increasingly sympathize with the victims from the perspective of sexual violence against women. The comfort women and other wartime issues have often strained relations between Tokyo and Seoul, most recently after a South Korean Supreme Court ruling on Japan’s forced mobilization of Korean laborers during the war.
“The point is not whether the comfort women involved forced recruitment or human trafficking. Let’s just squarely face the damage done, overcome it and join hands in promoting understanding among Asian countries,” Uemura told a news conference in Tokyo on Thursday.
Uemura in 2015 filed a defamation suit against Sakurai and three publishers that carried articles by her that alleged his stories were “fabrication.” A district court in Sapporo ruled last Friday that Sakurai’s articles hurt Uemura’s reputation but did not amount to defamation.
At issue are two articles Uemura wrote for the Asahi 27 years ago, including one based on the account of the first South Korean comfort woman to come forward, Kim Hak-soon. Uemura has been criticized by conservatives since then, but their attacks have escalated in recent years. After Sakurai’s magazine articles in 2014 accused him of fabricating the comfort women issue, threats were sent to him, his family and a university in Sapporo where he taught after losing a promised professorship elsewhere.
Uemura wants Sakurai and the magazines to publish an apology and pay ¥16.5 million ($146,000) in compensation. He said he will appeal to a high court. He has also filed other libel suits against a scholar and a publisher in Tokyo.
Historians say tens of thousands of women, including Japanese, Koreans and others from around Asia were sent to front-line military brothels to provide sex for Japanese soldiers. A 1991 to 1993 central government investigation concluded many of the women were recruited against their will, leading to a landmark Japanese apology. The investigation found no written proof in the surviving official documents, and conservatives have cited that in arguing the women were not coerced.
A private Japanese atonement fund set up with state funding and public donations in 1995 paid out nearly ¥5 billion ($44 million) for medical care and welfare to more than 280 women, including 61 South Koreans, but many others in that country, as well as others, rejected the money under a policy by their support group to seek official compensation and apologies from the Japanese government. The two countries are still divided despite a landmark 2015 agreement intended to resolve the differences.