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Fifty Sherlock Holmes works published before 1923 by Arthur Conan Doyle are in the public domain, a U.S. appeals court said Monday, and others may refer to them freely without paying licensing fees to the Scottish writer’s estate.

The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago said U.S. copyright law did not cover earlier works depicting the brilliant detective, including references to Holmes, his sidekick Dr. Watson, archenemy professor Moriarty, 221B Baker Street, and even Holmes’ cocaine use.