Britain backed use of A-bomb against Japan: U.S. documents


Britain supported the use of atomic bombs by the United States against Japan in World War II about a month before the first one was dropped on Hiroshima, documents recently declassified by the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration showed.

The documents illustrate Britain’s involvement in the United States’ decision to carry out the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, something not widely known in Japan.

The British government officially expressed its support for using the new weapon against Japan at the Combined Policy Committee meeting in Washington on July 4, 1945, on the development and control of nuclear energy. Britain referred to atomic bombs as Tube Alloys, a codename it used for wartime research on nuclear weapons that was also used to refer to plutonium.

According to the declassified minutes, British Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson told the meeting chaired by U.S. Secretary of War Henry Stimson that the British government “concurred in the use of the T.A. weapon against Japan.”

“The Governments of the United Kingdom and the United States had agreed that T.A. weapons should be used by the United States against Japan, the agreement of the British Government having been communicated” by Wilson, the minutes said.

The committee was established based on the Quebec Agreement made in August 1943 by the United States, Britain and Canada on coordinated development of atomic weapons.

Britain’s official agreement on the use of atomic bombs came after U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed at their September 1944 meeting in New York that an atomic bomb might be used against Japan when it was developed.

Shortly after the July 1945 committee meeting, the United States conducted the first atomic bomb test in New Mexico.

  • Ricky Kaminski

    Congratulations britain on being part of humanity’s saddest hour.

    • ff

      humanity’s saddest hour? Are you freaking serious? Adolf Hitler slaughtering millions of Jews, gays, and cripples in Europe, Imperial Japan raping and killing millions throughout Asia, Joseph Stalin killing millions of his own countrymen in the USSR. Mao Zedong who killed at least 50,000,000 Chinese (yes that number is right) in the PRC. Pol Pot who killed millions of his own people as well. The Kim regime in the North Korea who continues to enslave their own people. All those things, and you have the Gaul, the audacity to say that the US dropping 2 weapons that where responsible for the death of 200,000 (and prevented millions of more if the allies had to invade Japan) was humanity’s saddest hour? You either are trolling, or you seriously need to pick up a history book. Their are much worse things that humanity has faced than the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (though the innocent women, children, and men who where killed shouldn’t have died.) And to top it, the USA helped rebuild Japan from the ashes of war to the third largest economy. They had our support then, and we still have their backs today. Now Japan is a wonderful, successful, and peaceful nation. (Not to say the USA is solely responsible for the success of Japan, as that would go to the Japanese people) So please, don’t make stupid and misinformed comments.

      • Gudge

        Get off your high horse ff. don’t forget the USA’s involvement in many atrocities since WW2 whether it be in plain view or shrouded in secrecy. The USA is certainly not all peace and goodwill to mankind. Oh, and the USA helped Japan rebuild only with its best interests at heart.

      • ff

        “Get off your high horse ff”

        Considering I wasn’t even born when WW2 went on and ended, I couldn’t even be on a high horse. It isn’t like I was around then to take credit for all the good that went down.

        “don’t forget the USA’s involvement in many atrocities since WW2 whether it be in plain view or shrouded in secrecy.”

        As President Ronald Reagan put it, we where fighting the most dangerous enemy since their long climb from the swamps of the stars. The US did commit war crimes, the massacres of Dachau, Biscari, and Canicattì. Those three massacres where killings of Axis prisoners of war in Europe by Allied soldiers. Now I can be all like “Since they where enemy prisoners of war, it was justified”. But if I did that, I would look like an Ass. The US never said that we where perfectly innocent of any wrong doings during WW2. But compared to the Axis powers, we where perfect little angles.

        “The USA is certainly not all peace and goodwill to mankind.”

        No we aren’t, no nation is. And anybody to say that would be lying. BUT the USA has done a lot of good for the world. But I think we try a bit to hard and we end up making ourselves look bad in the long run. the Iraq war is an example of that. But if you compare the good and bad the USA has done, your perception of us would change. Of course you only see what you want to see.

        “Oh, and the USA helped Japan rebuild only with its best interests at heart.”

        We didn’t ONLY help rebuild Japan with only our interests
        at heart. They lost WW2, and being the nation we are, and the ideals we hold, we helped to rebuild the nation, and help set them on a path for success. Of course, there where interests at play. We wanted to check the expansion of the USSR and communism. Even today, besides helping out arguably our closest ally in Asia.. Japan, we also want to check the rise of China.
        As you can see Gudge, I just did the “American” thing and proved everything you said wrong. The only threat to peace and goodwill to mankind is stupidity, and you aren’t doing humanity much of a favor right now.

      • Murasaki

        Time you go read up on Allied War Crimes mate. You are so off base it is not funny.

      • Guest

        The difference is that the commission of war crimes by the Allies wasn’t a matter of policy.

      • Murasaki

        War crimes are war crimes end of story, no mater if by the USA(daily occurrence in the past 70 years), UK, Germany, Japan, Australia, China or by the men on the moon.

        Anyone Soldier that committed war crimes against others should have been executed or jailed like everyone else.

        Saying we can do it but you cannot is ludicrous.

      • Guest

        Again you’re missing the point – for the Allies, war crimes wasn’t national policy. For the major Axis powers, notably Germany and Japan, it very much was.

      • Murasaki

        Since the end of WWII the US has been involved in 37 conflict around the world resulting in the deaths of 30 million civilians…. Just remember that, as the US is still on a killing spree of citizens in other countries like Pakistan, Afghanistan to name but 2.

      • Guest

        And that’s totally relevant because … ?

      • Murasaki

        Ummm because every other nations was pointed out as killing millions and I felt the US was being left out again as the ‘Japan Bashers’ on The Japan Times web page can see no fault in the US.
        Me being fair and a person that loves Japan, I took it upon my self to include the good old USA in the conversation as a psychotic nation that is still on a killing spree of civilians should not be bushed under the carpet and forgotten about.

      • Guest

        Except what America did or didn’t do post-WW2 is totally irrelevant. Remember when this article was about the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki? Those were good times!

      • xman_11530

        30 million? Exaggerated much?

    • xman_11530

      What choice did Britain have? An invasion of Japan would have killed millions.

    • Michael Lara

      Hello all, I have lived in Japan since April 2000 and have a firm grasp of the mentality here. Oblivious of history most are like most Americans and Brits. I am a historian by trade and you know, as evil the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a full invasion from American and Russian forces would have resulted in a slaughter. Point blank, if the USA did not nuke Japan, Russia would have invaded from the north to get some redemption (remember Japan surprised the world by defeating Russia in the 1904-1905 war brilliantly organized by Admiral Togo). Truman did what he did to avoid a huge American-Russian fight over Japan.

      If you know your history, Japan was done by the end of 1943 with huge losses at Midway and Coral Sea. I just feel so sad for all those lost at Okinawa-no need.

      Unless you live in Japan and speak their language, you cannot understand their character. I do and many of my friends are scholars here.

      To respond to one of the comments, one of my friends was forced to fight for the Emperor at age 14. He’s glad the bombs were dropped for madness was running wild in our world at that time. He really despises Hirohito.

      Please read “Embracing Defeat” by Professor John W. Dower of MIT for some education.

      It is horrible what happened of course and well, those two bombings just showed what humanity is capable of in a destructive way. Really sad and dumb and needless.

      Humility is a character trait in need for most and lacking in governments especially.

      To all those who perished during WWI and WWII, much respect and apologies for your needless lost.

      Not a big fan of Spike Lee, but his phrase and movie is what we all need to do, “Do the right thing.”

  • And so it should have. What it shouldn’t have done is ‘inconsistently’ preserved its utilitarian capitalism value system that has belatedly made us an ‘economic slave’ to the state. Representative democracy has been the principle cause of the dumbing down of constituents, sorry ‘(British) subjects’, in the last century. Now, its subjugation to economic imperatives because they constrain the economy. Rest assured, the message for the West or Japan has not changed….Renounce! Renounce! Renounce!

    • xman_11530

      A true capitalist system makes one less of a slave than either communism or socialism which takes a large percentage of an individual’s efforts and “redistributes” to the State’s favorite causes which can be waging war.

      • Umbra

        We are all slaves to one master
        Called. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

  • Tyler Chester

    Makes sense. If I remember correctly, didn’t Japan occupy Singapore which was a British colony at the time?

  • Denny Pollard

    I really think the world should look at history and the invasion that the forces were up against. The worse of two evils invade mainland Japan and destroy the whole
    country or destroy two cites and force Japan to surrender. Both choices were going to be a bad call, so I think the two governments went with the less loss of life and dropped the only two bombs they had. The Japanese did not know how many bombs the U.S. had at the time.

    What we don’t know is how would an invasion of mainland Japan really turned out. I think an invasion would have been far worse for all concerned and yes war is always bad and one country has to lose that’s what was is about. This does not mean I am in favor of dropping nukes on people, it’s only the last option that should be last. Just one man’s opinion.

  • xman_11530

    News Flash: China and Korea would have supported using atomic bombs on Japan if anyone has asked them in 1945.

    At the end of the day, dropping the bomb on Japan saved millions of people- both Allied and Japanese- who would have died during an invasion and elongation of WW2.

    To argue otherwise is to ignore reality.

    • Yoko

      So, you think it’s ok to break Hague Conventions??? Are you human???
      The mission of the atomic bombs together with the other bomb attacks by B-29, which were being done DAILY, was obviously to kill the “unarmed” civilians. Why didn’t they attack “SOLDIERS” or “BASES” instead? There were no bases where those 2 atomic bombs were dropped. Both of them. WHY? And why did they also kept keeping the record of some of the victims WITHOUT curing them???

      A historian at Stanford University has confirmed the purpose of those atomic bombs – to kill, with confidential documents and it will be soon published as a book Mainichi Shimbun says. Also, the States ignored what the British info dept had told them that there are American prisoners in those 2 areas and they ignored it. Wake up kid, you’re the ignorant one who’s been tricked by the “winners” – Winners write history.

      • Ron NJ

        Thanks for citing sources to back up your claims!
        Hiroshima was headquarters to both the Second General Army and the Fifth Division, with reports of up to 40,000 troops stationed within the city; the Fifth Division’s headquarters was actually within the ruins of Hiroshima Castle. (http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A2/2209_2.htm, http://www.chugoku-np.co.jp/abom/97e/peace/e/03/omoide.htm)
        Additionally, Hiroshima was (and still is) a major transportation hub, being both on the Sanyo train line and also having one of Japan’s largest ports (Kure) nearby, which at the time of the bombing held the last of the IJN’s major surface vessels (Royal Navy (1995). War with Japan. Volume VI Advance to Japan. p. 223.) Striking at Hiroshima not only prevented any possibility of refueling the vessels at Kure via the railroad infrastructure, but also incapacitated the headquarters of the military units responsible for the western half of Honshu, Kyushu, and (I believe) Shikoku, as well as effectively destroying the Fifth Division.

        Nagasaki, if you will recall, was – just as it is now – a major port for western Japan. On the date of the bombing, there were 9000 Japanese soldiers within the city (http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/radevents/1945JAP2.html). Additionally, aside from being one of the largest and most important ports in western Japan, the city was home to significant war-related industry – ammunition and ordinance, military equipment, shipbuilding, and so on. According to Steven Zaloga, the city was also defended by anti-aircraft regiments from the 4th anti-aircraft artillery division (Defense of Japan 1945, page 59).

        Is it regrettable that civilians died? Of course, it always is. In a perfect world there would be no civilian deaths (or any deaths at all). However, World War 2 did not take place in a perfect world, and while one can argue against the experimentative aspects of the decisions to bomb the two cities, their validity as military and logistical targets fall within the allowed scope of the Geneva Convention (http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=iVdYaSUDKysC&pg=PA67&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false) so I find it a bit hard to take most of what you’ve written seriously.

      • Hi, I’m a Japanese citizen, nice to meet you.
        With all my respect, if you’re a citizen of then Allies, I’ll appreciate if you’re not trying to justify the bombs dropping as the way you’re doing, which makes me disgusted very much.
        You’re provoking my Japanese mind, I can’t feel any humanity or sympathy in your text.
        Even if the things were just as you say, any of which is not going to justify it, there was no validity with the bombs to be atomic ones, other bombs could be enough to destroy the targets that you refered to.
        Sending my prior thanks to you, believing that you’re not going to make me uncomfortable anymore.

      • Starviking

        To destroy the targets and not use atomic bombs would have required either serious carpet bombing of the city by masses of bombers, or fire bombing. Both would have resulted in masses of casualties too, but would probably not have pressured Japan to end the war. They would undoubtedly have been followed by similar raids on other targets to try and break the Japanese government’s resolve to fight to the end. In that case, the end would probably have been drawn out enough to permit the IJA to carry out their order to kill all PoWs.

        Talking about sympathy is one thing, and I have the greatest sympathy to those who suffered in the atomic bombings, but please use some logic too – the bombing could well have been a necessary evil.

      • Thank you for responding me, without giving your nationality.
        Well, it’s only for your “responding me” that I actually appreciate, nothing to find other issue to thank you.
        “The baby was born”, a new toy was requiring them to get used, that’s all.
        There’s no logic in dropping the bombs that you rely on, and I’m not talking about “logic”, but humanity.
        I wonder, how you people dare post such a cold blooded comment, really freezing.
        I’m one of the people belonged to the country attacked by the bombs, how dare you, how could you try to convince “me”? To make me admit its validity for a “necessary evil “?
        “You” convincing me is never accomplished.
        I’m not trying to argue with Chinese or Korean people saying about the bombs to be a kind of punishment, or retribution, but just listening.
        I don’t think I have to bear with it if it’s for then Allies people except China.
        Also I don’t think I’m going to reply you again unless you gave your nationality up.
        I truly wonder how would you think yourself to be fair while I’ve given my nationality since ever.

      • Ron NJ

        Why are you so hung up on nationality? It is completely irrelevant, and thus far you’ve only brought it up in some silly attempt to act like Japan was an innocent victim and drum up sympathy.

      • Ron NJ

        This is exactly why it is so difficult to discuss World War 2 with Japanese people: they tend to be too emotionally invested in it and unable to think about it rationally. Additionally, let me briefly point out that discussing World War 2 is not a matter of citizenship – I do not care what country (or countries) you are a citizen of and find the mention completely superfluous, and I find attempts to silence criticism or discussion of the war based on citizenship to be quite reprehensible.

        Now, moving on to the meat of the issue:
        Operations Olympic and Coronet (the invasions of Kyushu and Honshu, respectively) were expected
        to face at least 30 divisions, which would comprise something between 300,000 and close to 1,000,000 troops. Combined with “a fanatically hostile population” who had been training all able bodied people,
        including women and children, to engage hostile forces with weapons such as bamboo spears, and had already encouraged civilians to commit suicide rather than face capture in, for example, Okinawa, the death toll for an invasion of Japan – the “alternative option” to dropping the bombs – was expected to exceed /ten million/ deaths. This figure does not include projected deaths from Operation Pastel, the diversionary invasion of Formosa, nor any deaths incurred during the continued fighting in China, Korea, or any other fronts in the Pacific. (http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm/ref/collection/p4013coll8/id/3387 )

        Japan had marshaled nearly 4.5 million regular army troops (and untold more paramilitary reserves) for the all out fight-to-the-death defense of the home islands. On Saipan, the /fatality rate/ of Japanese
        defenders was 98.4%. On Okinawa, 90%. Of Okinawa’s civilians, between one eighth and one third died in the invasion – Okinawa prefecture’s own estimate is 100,000 of roughly 300,000 civilians (http://www.peace-museum.pref.okinawa.jp/english/index.html ). Extrapolating that out, you could expect 4 million regular army members from the Japanese military dead – and then on top of that, how many million Japanese civilians? How many of the 2.7 million Allied soldiers slated for the invasion? A study done by the Secretary of War’s office projected up to /ten million *Japanese* deaths/ were Operation Downfall to go ahead, to say nothing of wounded, orphaned, etc. That figure cannot be emphasized enough, noting again that it does not include projected Allied casualties, which were expected to be 1.7 to 4 million (400,000-800,000 fatalities – two to four times the deaths caused by the two atomic bombs in Allied deaths alone). (http://www.airforcemag.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2009/June%202009/0609invasion.aspx , Richard Frank, Downfall, p. 188-189, 340)

        Do we even need to go into the likely partition of Japan into North and South Japan along ideological lines when the Soviets invade Hokkaido? (see: previous Downfall PDF) Who is going to take responsibility for the millions of Japanese people living in the all-too-plausible Communist North Japan? Who is even going to wager a guess as to when Japan would be reunited, when North and South Korea are still at each others throats, a remnant not only of the horrors of World War 2 but of Japan’s colonial past?

        To put it bluntly, I would gladly trade 200,000 lives for a projected ten million. I would gladly trade 200,000 lives and an immediate end to one of the most destructive wars in history for ten million lives lost, the largest naval invasion in history (more than twice as many divisions slated for the Kanto invasion as took part in D-Day), the partitioning of Japan into North/South along ideological lines, and the complete destruction of not just Hiroshima and Nagasaki but of innumerable cities, towns, and villages throughout Japan.

        To choose otherwise would be one of the most heartless and selfish decisions possible. I can appreciate that Japanese people have been subjected to a great deal of propaganda regarding how the final years of the war played out, and I can appreciate that losing such a major war can be a sore point of contention, but I absolutely cannot appreciate nor understand the Japanese insistence that dropping the bombs was ‘a bad thing’. I cannot appreciate the absolute lack of thought for all the millions of lives – the vast majority Japanese civilians – that would be lost would the Allies have had to invade Japan.

        This is something the Japanese must understand.

        It is not about ‘them’ and ‘us’. It is not about emotion.

        It is about reality and facts, and that is what must be used when discussing such issues.

        You have my condolences if discussing the bombings makes you uncomfortable, but it is precisely that discomfort which you need to throw off if you are ever to really understand the war. You can’t just
        ignore facts and reality because you disagree with it or it brings you discomfort. War is a painful thing, and we should make every effort to learn from it so that the lessons therein are not repeated.

      • Your condolence denied.
        Since it’s all about your arrogance, and lack of humanity.
        I’ve got uncomfortable because not any of my problem but just yours.
        You’re a sorry man.

      • Ron NJ

        There you are proving my point: you’re too emotional about it to even acknowledge facts and reason. Your position is basically “the bombs were bad because humanity!” yet you refuse to even engage in discussion about the available alternative options, instead devolving to personal attacks.
        You were right about one thing, though – I am sorry. Sorry that seventy years on, huge numbers of Japanese people are still being brainwashed by the propaganda machine and steadfastly refuse to even begin to think about the situation from any viewpoint other than the one that has been crammed down their throats their entire lives by a government that whitewashes history.
        I sincerely hope that one day you and those that think like you can finally tear down the fortress of ignorance you have created and actually educate yourselves, but it’s clear that at the present even attempting to discuss the matter with you – as I originally stated – is simply futile.

      • Murasaki

        Yawn … Well maybe if the US did not provoke Japan in to bombing Pearl then none of this would have happened.

      • Ron NJ

        “Yawn … Well maybe if Japan had just surrendered instead of suicidally continuing the war when all hope of victory was long since lost then none of this would have happened.”

      • xman_11530

        The purpose of dropping the bombs was to end the war. They succeeded. Had the Allies been forced to invade mainland Japan millions more would have died on both sides.

        By the way, did the Imperial Army follow The Hague Conventions when it literally raped the city of Nanking?

      • Murasaki

        The dropping on of the bombs was so Japan would surrender to the US and not the USSR. It had nothing to do about ending the war. The US was afraid that the USSR would take over China, Japan, SE Asia and then turn towards the USA.

        Raping of Nanking? Try reading up on Nationalist China V Communist China … Most killed in Nanking was Nationalist on Communist.

        The Nationalist were Allies of the USA, until FDR decided to betray then and hand the country over to the Communist, because he was in fear of the USSR taking over.

      • Guest

        What the Nationalist Chinese did or didn’t do isn’t relevant at all – we’re talking about the Hague Conventions. “They did it too so it’s ok if Japan did it” is terrible logic.

      • Yoko

        Nankin Massacre is based on a novel which you almost wrote out the name of, Rape of Nankin, a fictional book, and the idea I’m sure was taken from them killing their own people. Also the number of the victims are not even unknown, it keeps increasing because those who believe in relies on the documents by John Rabe whose report of the number kept changing by 10,000 or so in a few days and he also revised his journal so many times because he hated Japan for losing his weapon selling job because of Japan.
        If you believe in Nankin Massacre, tell me which unit attacked there. Or what kinda weapon they used to keep the buildings and yet killed the enormous amount of people all at once. And how they moved the bodies and even though there were supposed to be tons of bodies, the population increased right after when it was supposed to happen. OH wait, you can’t say that cuz it was not real. The idea of Nankin Massacre first came in at Tokyo trial where India, France, Netherlands, Philippines, Australia said that the trial is not legal and rather outrageous. Since such a thing did not happen and what was brought in was fabricated photos by Chinese people – they were making the stuff up and posted on the newspapers there to send them hideous pics and since it rewarded them people tried their best fabricating, it was the first time Japanese people to hear about it and that was one of the things that the fake trial sentenced Japan as bad.
        Also, to end the war, why did you have to use the atomic bombs and not regular bombs like they were dropping DAILY? In Tokyo, with that alone 5 months before that, they got to kill over 100,000 unarmed women, children and elder people in that one time. Why did they have to drop those 2 different types of atomic bombs and kept the records of the victims without curing them?
        And what the heck did you read in this article?

      • Ron NJ

        And there you have it folks, historical revisionism at its finest.

      • xman_11530

        Visit the Nanjing Memorial. I was there in January. You will learn something. Your attitude illustrates why Japan better never get into a war with China. Payback will be severe.

      • Michael Lara

        Dear Yoko-
        I have lived in your nation since 2000 and you are clearly ignorant of your nation’s history like most Japanese, Americans,etc. Why does the rest of Asia distrust Japan? Hmm…Maybe since your soldiers raped and killed. Don’t be a hypocrite about the Hague. Japan did biological experiments on occupied Asians and POW’s. Educate yourself please. Read “Embracing Defeat” by Professor John W. Dower, a Pulitzer Prize effort and others. Bottom line for the bombs was to end it quickly. Otherwise, both Russia and the USA would have invaded Japan. Stalin had no love for the coward Hirohito or Hitler. Hitler ended his life, but the USA spared Hirohito for he was sacred to most Japanese. For those ignorant about Japan, this nation was feudalistic until the American occupation. That is why change is so slow here.
        Just be glad China and Russia didn’t invade, otherwise a huge slaughter would have ensued. That’s why Japanese captured were in Siberia for life. Still, it is horrible that it came to this, but in the end, it spared millions death or maiming. What is most irritating about this all is that Japan feels they are the victim, but they created their destiny.

  • Starviking

    Interesting that the other option, a massive seaborne invasion of Japan, is not mentioned in the article at all. I guess context is out of date!

    • Ron NJ

      But of course. You can’t play the victim card for decades if you admit that the most reasonable option was taken, thus we wind up with the present situation.

  • Steve Gregg

    Hirohito supported the use of the Japanese atom bomb as soon as it was ready, either the Army or Navy version. Good thing we got ours first.

    • Yoko

      No he did not. He told the people NOT to use it when they asked if they could use it. Don’t try to spread lies.

      • Toolonggone

        Um, I think he is just making a silly hypothetical argument. It is actually chemical and biological human experiment Japanese Imperial Army(i.e., Unit 731) conducted in war against China.

  • Tyler Chester

    On the bright side, look at where Japan is today. It wouldn’t have been possible without American aid for reconstruction. Japan is an industrial giant: Toyota, Honda, Sony, Toshiba, etc.

    • Ron NJ

      Absolutely. Not having to support an independent, force projection-capable military undoubtedly freed up an incredible amount of money which could then be pumped into the economy.
      Losing the war, and the aid and help they received from their former enemies afterwards, is what made Japan into the economic miracle of being one of the largest economies in the world complete with an incredible standard of living compared to the rest of Asia.

    • Yoko

      Dude, read up on what GHQ has done, to DESTROY the social system here and making sure that they get rid of our pride/history so that we won’t revenge to them. Let’s start with them firing 200,000 teachers here, giving out 30 articles of order which includes press code, changing the names of the things around here like the name of the war to make us forget the purpose of the war etc. Look up War Guilt Information Program. Japan is great just because the country naturally is that way. The nation is the oldest independent nation with over 2673 years of history.

      • Guest

        Nothing to back up ones argument like a load of nationalistic nihonjinron. Want to tell us about how Japan is the only country with four unique seasons as well?

      • curtis mooney

        you could always re elect hirohito as god

    • ff

      Exactly. Now imagine if the US gave that kind of aid to our allies like the Philippines.. They could become an economic powerhouse, quality of living would improve dramatically. We should cut all aid to the middle east, remove all troops from there, and focus on our true friends and allies who have always had our backs, not a bunch of middle eastern countries who consider us terrorists.

      • Tyler Chester

        Agreed and despite what the conspiracy theorists claim, I think the only reason we have funding going to the Middle Eastern countries is over oil. I think if we can divert funding to undeveloped & friendly countries, we could increase our economic partnerships resulting in a win-win situation for both nations.

  • Toolonggone

    It’s nothing new, and I’m not surprised to hear the truth at all. I guess some of us may wonder why it came out right now? Stimson was a key player in making US decisions on A-bombs and addressing the conditions for enemy(Japan)’s surrender.