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Many Ainu lead underprivileged lives, with their income and university advancement rate remaining low, according to a survey by the Hokkaido University Center for Ainu & Indigenous Studies and the Ainu Association of Hokkaido.

Their average annual household income stands at ¥3.56 million, around 60 percent of the national average, and the college advancement rate among Ainu below 30 years of age comes to 20.2 percent, compared with the national average of 42.2 percent, the preliminary figures of the survey show.

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