Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy are widely known abroad to be effective in treating depression.

CBT was developed in the 1950s by psychologist Albert Ellis and psychiatrist Aaron Beck, both from the U.S. It is based on the theory that the way we perceive situations affects our emotions. The therapy, which uses structured interviews and homework, helps people identify distorted thinking and beliefs and change their behavior.

IPT, though less popular than CBT in Japan, was developed in the 1970s and '80s as an outpatient treatment for adults with clinical depression. It has roots in the work of U.S. psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan. It works on solving problems by examining interpersonal relationships, especially with "significant others" such as immediate family members and romantic partners.