Tokyo remains the world’s most expensive city for expatriate workers in terms of the cost of living, according to an annual survey released Monday by a U.S. consulting firm.

Tokyo scored an index of 130.7 against the base of 100 for New York in a survey conducted in 144 cities in March by the New York-based Mercer Human Resource Consulting.

The cost of living in Tokyo is three times that of Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, which became the world’s cheapest city for expats, with an index of 42.7, according to the survey.

The survey covered 200 factors, including housing, food, clothing and household goods as well as transportation and entertainment.

London became the second most expensive city for expats, followed by Moscow and Osaka. Last year, London was seventh, Moscow was second and Osaka third.

Reflecting recent rises in the euro and Asian currencies, living costs became higher in European and Asian cities, while no U.S. cities were in the top 10 due to a weaker dollar, the consulting firm said.

Among other Asian cities, Hong Kong ranked fifth and Seoul seventh.

Among European cities, Geneva came in sixth, Copenhagen eighth and Zurich ninth.

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