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Japan’s seclusion policy (sakoku) from the early 17th to the mid-19th century is commonly studied from the point of view of the bakufu, the Tokugawa government in Edo that exercised central control over the other domains of the realm.

Much research has also been directed at Deshima — often called “Japan’s only window to the West” — in Nagasaki harbor where the Dutch East Asia Company VOC maintained a commercial factory, enjoying trade privileges for more than 200 years.

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