China now faces the same debt-deflation challenge that much of the rest of the world must address. The question, of course, is how.
With President Xi Jinping's anti-corruption drive chipping away at the culture of personal gain among Chinese officials, now is the time to press ahead with structural reforms, not back away from them.
China's economy has succeeded through trial and error, and the lessons of its current stress test should be viewed as part of that process, to be used to drive the next phase of economic reform.
If Western leaders really do believe in innovation, competition and meritocracy, they should welcome the AIIB.
With China's economic slowdown more apparent than ever, its prospects for avoiding a hard landing are weakening.
The best way to sustain China's economic transition and prevent a hard landing is to implement looser monetary and credit policies that enable the most productive cities, companies and industries to generate new added value.
Only by addressing the weakening of investment-led growth, bureacratic inefficiencies and worsening pollution, and then shifting to an innovation-based, environmentally sustainable growth model, can China continue to prosper and ultimately achieve high-income status.
China's financial deepening is a market process. But it must be underpinned by a regulatory and policy framework that encourages risk-taking and innovation.
A generation of development economists owe Ronald McKinnon, who died earlier this month, a huge intellectual debt for his insight that governments like the U.S. that engage in free-market rhetoric to channel funds toward themselves hamper financial development.
As property prices have risen faster than wages and profits in manufacturing, China's top 1 percent income earners are accumulating wealth significantly faster than their counterparts in the rest of the world — and far faster than the average Chinese.