There were signs of new ground fighting in the hotly contested Donbas region, where Russian forces have taken one of its provinces, Luhansk.
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As Washington works to shore up alliances with its Asian allies to constrain China, it is also trying to assemble a global effort to punish Moscow for its aggression in Ukraine.
The approach marks a fundamental shift for an alliance that was born in the Cold War but came to view a post-Soviet Russia as a potential ally, and did not focus on China at all.
Russia's brutal invasion has ripped apart predictions, reawakened old alliances, tested others and spread death and destruction across Ukraine.
Within an alliance that operates by consensus, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has come to be seen as something of a stickup artist.
Differing objectives make it all the more difficult to define what victory — or even a muddled peace — would look like.
But analysts say Macron must also learn lessons from his first term, as his penchant for announcing proposals rather than building coalitions at times annoyed his European counterparts.
The West is focused on sending longer-range weapons like howitzers, anti-aircraft systems, anti-ship missiles, armed drones, armored trucks, personnel carriers and even tanks.
Few in Germany believed Putin would invade a sovereign European country, but the war has set off a cycle of soul-searching — and re-evaluating ties to Russia.
After a meeting with Putin, Austria's chancellor said he came away fearing that the Russian president intended to drastically intensify the brutality of the war in Ukraine.