Perhaps fearing that the entire council could fall apart, some neighborhood associations resort to drastic measures to keep members active and in line. The culture clash is not foreigner vs. Japanese, but traditional vs. modern.
The rules that apply to "stop and frisk" questioning are set down in the Police Duties Execution Act of 1948, but since the clauses are ambiguous and contradictory, there have been a lot of arguments about the legal limits on this kind of behavior,
Non-Japanese women discuss their experiences of mata-hara, or "maternity harassment" — discrimination in the workplace against women who are pregnant, on child-care leave or have returned to work after giving birth.
Having often been told by the Japanese that he would "never understand" their culture because he was not one of them, American cartoonist Tim Ernst decided to embrace this notion and deploy it creatively.