COLUMBUS, OHIO – A few weeks before their prom king’s death, students at an Ohio high school had attended an assembly on narcotics that warned about the dangers of heroin and prescription painkillers.
But it was one of the world’s most widely accepted drugs that killed Logan Stiner: a powdered form of caffeine so potent that as little as a single teaspoon can be fatal.
The teen’s sudden death in May has focused attention on the unregulated powder and drawn a warning from U.S. health authorities urging consumers to avoid it.
“I don’t think any of us really knew that this stuff was out there,” said Jay Arbaugh, superintendent of Keystone Local Schools.
The Food and Drug Administration said Friday that it is investigating caffeine powder and will consider taking regulatory action. The agency cautioned parents that young people could be drawn to it.
An autopsy found that Stiner had a lethal amount of caffeine in his system when he died May 27 at his home in LaGrange, Ohio, southwest of Cleveland. Stiner, a wrestler, had more than 70 micrograms of caffeine per milliliter of blood in his system — about 23 times the amount found in a typical coffee or soda drinker.
His mother was unaware he took caffeine powder. He was just days away from graduation and had planned to study at the University of Toledo.
Caffeine powder is sold as a dietary supplement, so it is not subject to the same federal regulations as certain caffeinated foods. Users add it to drinks for a pick-me-up before workouts or to control weight gain.
A minuscule amount packs a punch. A mere one-sixteenth of a teaspoon (0.3 milliliters) can contain about 200 mg of caffeine, roughly the equivalent of two large cups of coffee. That means a heaping teaspoon (over 5 ml) could kill, said Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York.
Glatter said he has seen several younger patients experience complications from caffeine in the last few months. Some arrive with rapid heart rates. “They’re starting to latch onto the powders more because they see it as a more potent way to lose weight.”
Health officials worry about caffeine powder’s potential popularity among exercise enthusiasts and young people seeking an energy boost.
Federal investigations have recently prompted some companies to pull products with added caffeine. Last year, Wrigley halted sales and marketing of Alert caffeinated gum after discussions with the FDA. In 2010, the agency forced manufacturers of alcoholic caffeinated beverages to cease production of those drinks.
A full teaspoon of caffeine powder could contain 3,200 mg of caffeine.
A person taking that amount can experience adverse effects in a matter of minutes, said Dr. Bob Hoffman, a New York University medical toxicologist. The brain becomes alert, then agitated and confused. The heartbeat picks up and can become dangerously irregular. A person can suffer nausea, vomiting and potentially a seizure.
“Just because it’s naturally occurring — it comes from a plant — doesn’t mean that it’s safe,” Hoffman said.