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A record number of typhoons

by Osamu and Nobuko Mizutani

Sample newspaper article

A RECORD NUMBER OF TYPHOONS

10月に入ってから日本に近づく台風は 5個目で、観測史上最多となる。気象庁によると10月に日本に近づく台風の数は平年で1.5個。1955年と2012年の4個が最多だった。今年多い理由として気象研究所の和田主任研究官は、赤道近くの海水の表面温度が例年より 1度高いことをあげる。例年なら、夏に通る台風などが海水をかき回し、深く冷たい水と混ざるため水温がさがる。ところが今年はここの水温も 9月は高かった。台風は温かい海を通ると力を強める。「台風が多く、強い力をもつという悪い条件が太平洋にそろってしまった」と和田さんは言う。 (Oct. 22)

Words and phrases

近づく (chika-) approach; 台風 (taifū) typhoon; 5 個目 (gokome) fifth; 観測史上 (kansoku-shijō) in the history of observation; 最多 (saita) most; 気象庁 (Kishōchō) Meteorological Agency; 接近する (sekkin-) approach; 数 (kazu) number; 平年 (heinen) ordinary year; 今年 (kotoshi) this year; 多い (ō-) many; 理由 (riyū) reason; 気象研究所 (kishō-kenkyūjo) Meteorological Research Institute; 和田主任研究官 (Wada shunin-kenkyūkan) W. chief researcher; 赤道 (sekidō) equator; 近く (chika-) near; 海水 (kaisui) seawater; 表面 (hyōmen) surface; 温度 (ondo) temperature; 例年 (reinen) average year; あげる cite; 通る (tō-) pass by; かき回し (-mawa-) stir up; 深く (fuka-) deep; 冷たい (tsume-) cold; 混ざる (ma-) mix; 水温 (suion) water temperature; 温かい (atata-) warm; 力 (chikara) power; 強める (tsuyo-) strengthen; 悪い (waru-) bad; 条件 (jōken) condition; 太平洋 (Taiheiyō) Pacific Ocean; そろって be complete

Sample radio or television report

10-gatsu-ni haitte-kara Nihon-ni chikazuku taifū-wa 5-kome-de, kansoku-shijō saita-to narimasu. Kishōchō-ni yorimasu-to 10-gatsu-ni Nihon-ni chikazuku taifū-no kazu-wa heinen-de 1-ten-5-ko. 1955-nen-to 2012-nen-no 4-ko-ga saita-deshita. Kotoshi ōi riyū-to shite Kishō-kenkyūjo-no Wada-shunin-kenkyūkan-wa,sekidō-chikaku-no kaisui-no hyōmen-ondo-ga reinen-yori 1-do takai koto-wo agemasu. Reinen-nara natsu-ni tōru taifū-nado-ga kaisui-wo kakimawashi, fukaku tsumetai mizu-to mazaru tame suion-ga sagarimasu. Tokoroga kotoshi-wa koko-no suion-mo 9-gatsu-wa takakatta-no-desu. Taifū-wa atatakai umi-wo tōru-to chikara-wo tsuyomemasu. “Taifū-ga ōku, tsuyoi chikara-wo motsu-to yū warui jōken-ga Taiheiyō-ni sorotte-shimatta”-to Wada-san-wa iimasu.

Translation

The fifth typhoon in October is approaching Japan, the most in the history of observation. According to the Meteorological Agency, the number of typhoons coming to Japan in October is 1.5 times that of an ordinary year; the four in 1955 and 2012, respectively, were the most so far. Why so many this year? Wada, chief researcher at the Meteorological Research Institute, points out that the surface temperature of seawater near the equator is higher than usual by 1 degree. Usually, typhoons passing by in summer stir up the seawater so that it is mixed with deep cold water and make the water cooler. But the water here was warm in September this year. Typhoons gain power when they pass over warm water. Mr. Wada said that unfavorable conditions came together in the Pacific Ocean to produce many strong typhoons.

A conversation between acquaintances

A: Kotoshi-wa taifū-ga ōkatta-desu-ne. (We have had so many typhoons this year.)

B: Shikamo 10-gatsu-ni haitte-mo kimashita-kara-ne. (Furthermore, we had a lot of them in October.)

Conversation between a husband and wife

H: Sekidō-atari-no umi-mo ondo-ga takakatta-rashii-yo. (It seems that the water temperature near the equator was high.)

W: Kore-mo ondanka-no seine. (It’s another effect of global warming.) (No. 1186)